Abnormal sex practices in marriage-Are Sexless Marriages and Relationships Normal? - Sexual Health Center - delihelwalker.com

People have been getting freaky in the bedroom and outdoors for centuries, and sometimes, things get pretty crazy. Whether it's because of tradition, culture or just general kinkiness, there's a bunch of weird sexual customs the world over that make you go WTF. The Sambian Tribe of New Guinea have a tradition of separating their boys from the girls at the age of 7 for 10 years. During this period, they undergo piercings, nose bleeds and have to drink the semen of the tribes mightiest warriors. Game over.

Abnormal sex practices in marriage

Topics Family. African Population Studies, Abnormao— What Are Sexual Big twin seats This was illustrated by the following statement: We women sometimes become desperate when you want to have a child but it refuses to come. Clinicians in various settings working with adults in the U. Risky sexual behaviour is influenced by many factors. A fifty year old married man came to my office with a variety of neurotic complaints, most of which resolved quickly with psychotherapy.

Singles in twin cities. Associated Data

Also pfactices oral sex, oral intercourse includes cunnilingus, fellatio, anilingus, felching, and rimming. MMWR ; 58 No. This has not been supported by studies in Us globe pageants cultures, but several studies in Samoa have found some support for this hypothesis. I found it under Google images. Estrogen thickens the endometrium of the uterus. The vagina is located between the bladder and the rectum. The state is not concerned with what the man who buys the prostitute does with her; except, should the man infect her Anormal a sexual disease, it sequesters — the prostitute. When these urges cannot be satisfied, undue stress is often placed on the mind of the sufferer. We are a team of Abnormal sex practices in marriage and starting a new project in a community in the same niche. The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis.

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  • Translated by Angela Clifford.
  • What counts as sexual?
  • Although marriages in ancient Egypt were arranged for communal stability and personal advancement, there is ample evidence that romantic love was as important to the people as it is to those in the present day.

Our individual preferences vary greatly and fluctuate throughout our lives. Societal attitudes also change over time. How often do most people have sex? That depends on what you consider sex to be. Marital status, age, and health also make a difference. The only thing that really matters is your own satisfaction and that of your partner.

According to the National Opinion Research Center , people aged 18 to 29 have sex about 84 times a year. In their 40s, most people drop off to around 63 times a year. In fact, survey respondents reported more than 40 combinations of sex acts. Vaginal intercourse is the most common shared activity, but oral sex and partnered masturbation are also popular.

According to NSSHB, vaginal intercourse is condom-protected 25 percent of the time in the United States, and 33 percent of the time among single people in the United States. It also found that African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans have a higher rate of condom use than whites and other groups. The lowest rate of condom use is among people over age Condom users were just as likely to have a pleasurable experience in this survey as those who did not use condoms.

According to the same survey of sexual behaviors, approximately 85 percent of men say their partner had an orgasm the last time they had sex. Only 64 percent of women say they had an orgasm during their last encounter. Women orgasm more often when oral sex or another form of stimulation is included. Approximately 7 percent of females and 8 percent of males identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, according to the NSSHB.

Historically, prevailing social attitudes made it difficult for people to identify as gay. Children develop at their own rate. Your child may fall outside the normal range of development, but this may be OK. From birth to 5 years of age, curious children explore their own bodies. By 5 years old, most children ask questions about body parts and functions, gender differences, and where babies come from.

From 6 to 10 years of age, children become modest about their bodies and more curious about adult sexuality. They may begin talking about sex with their peers and engage in some form of masturbation. Despite all the talk to the contrary, most teenagers are not having frequent sex. Forty percent said they had, but only 27 percent said they had in the previous three months. According to a study commissioned by AARP , people over age 45 say sexual activity is a very important part of their lives and has a direct impact on the quality of their life.

Of all study participants, 36 percent reported having sexual intercourse at least once a week. They reported a variety of sexual interests. They also enjoy touching, caressing, and hugging. They like sex and say they would not be pleased to give it up. Lots of people are reluctant to talk candidly about their sexual activities.

Suffice it to say that a fair number of us indulge in other sexual behaviors, including:. Although once-taboo subjects, people now speak more openly about masturbation, homosexuality, and bisexuality. Still, what people do in the privacy of their own homes and what they will admit to may be two different things.

Your hymen naturally wears down over time. It typically develops openings that allow for penetration long before your first sexual experience. In basic terms, cuckolding is a fetish or kink in which a person gets turned on by their partner having sex with someone else. Silent sex can be thrilling and intensely pleasurable.

For couples, a happy sex life can take communication and work. Sexual satisfaction is one way to increase overall enjoyment with life. It also helps…. A healthy vagina tastes and smells like a healthy vagina. That is to say, it might be sweet or sour, metallic or bitter, salty or sharp. It might even…. Amazing shower sex is possible with some communication, care, and a little know-how.

Here's what you need to know. Doggy style isn't just for penis-in-vagina sex, so don't be afraid to switch up the entry point or add other stimulation into the mix. Here's how to…. We know exercise has tons of benefits, from building strength to stressing less. But if you need another reason to ramp up your fitness game, this one…. The wheelbarrow position is all about those hard-to-reach erogenous zones. Not only does it offer access to the elusive G spot, it also brings the…. Sexperts explain the benefits of testicle play and share their top tips for giving the right kind of attention to your boo's balls.

What Are Sexual Norms? Your sexual repertoire. Oh, that elusive orgasm! Sexual orientation. Sexual development in children. Sex is not just for the young. Those other behaviors. Changing attitudes. How to Have Great Quiet Sex. How to Have a Happy Sex Life. What Does a Vagina Taste Like?

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Practices by type. Take a look at some of the rituals other peoples practice. They also tend to be more in favor of same-sex marriage. Swinging Also called mate swapping or wife swapping, swinging is exchanging partners between couples for sexual recreation or having sex together with at least one other additional person. I added the credit, but now the image is gone. Moisten seed-wool with the mixture and insert into the vagina Lewis, Most people fail to understand the differing criteria used to identify real paraphilias from "things that turn people on".

Abnormal sex practices in marriage

Abnormal sex practices in marriage

Abnormal sex practices in marriage. Eduard Bernstein

In the Wodaabe tribe of Niger in West Africa, men are known to steal each other's wives. The Wodaabe's first marriage is arranged by their parents in infancy and must be between cousins of the same lineage. However, at the yearly Gerewol Festival, Wodaabe men wear elaborate makeup and costumes and dance to impress the women — and hopefully steal a new wife.

If the new couple is able to steal away undetected especially from a current husband who may not want to part with his wife , then they become socially recognized.

These subsequent marriages are called love marriages. According to Sex and Society, "even the ebb and flow of the Nile was thought to be caused by Atum's the god of creation ejaculation. This concept spurred the Egyptian pharaohs to ritually masturbate into the Nile to ensure an abundance of water. The ancient Egyptians were so inspired by the act of self-stimulation that at the festival of the god Min, who represented Pharaoh's sexual potency, men masturbated in public.

The ancient Greeks did not conceive of sexual orientation as a social identifier the way Western societies have done for the past century. Greek society did not distinguish sexual desire or behavior by the gender of the participants, but rather by the role that each participant played in the sex act, that of the active penetrator or the passive penetrated. The most common form of same-sex relationships between males in Greece was "paiderastia" meaning "boy love.

A boy was considered a "boy" until he was able to grow a full beard. In Athens, the older man was called erastes, and he was to educate, protect, love, and provide a role model for his eromenos, whose reward for him lay in his beauty, youth, and promise. To love a boy below the age of twelve was considered inappropriate, but no evidence exists of any legal penalties attached to this sort of practice. We all know that Muslim practices are among some of the strictest regarding sexual intercourse and the relationships between men and women.

For instance, Muslim couples are only allowed to have sex in the missionary position. It's considered gross and degrading for a man to ask any other position from his wife. Even more amazing is that older women are told to have sex with young boys so they can learn about sex and how to properly please their partner.

Hmm, wonder if they speak cougar in Mangaia. Back in the s, researchers discovered that the people of Inis Baeg, an island off the coast of Ireland, have sex with their clothes on and only did it in the missionary position.

The church preached to residents that sex with a spouse is a responsibility, while foreplay never extended beyond kissing and touching the rear end. The island was sexually repressed and nudity was frowned upon, as was any sort of erotic contact. Ancient Egyptians masturbated into the Nile River. Read that again. And you wonder why bottled water has become all the rage. In the United States people of color face the effects of colonialism in different ways with stereotypes such as the Mammy, and Jezebel for Black women; lotus blossom, and dragon lady for Asian women; and the "spicy" Latina.

The age and manner in which children are informed of issues of sexuality is a matter of sex education. The school systems in almost all developed countries have some form of sex education, but the nature of the issues covered varies widely. In some countries, such as Australia and much of Europe, age-appropriate sex education often begins in pre-school, whereas other countries leave sex education to the pre-teenage and teenage years.

Geographic location also plays a role in society's opinion of the appropriate age for children to learn about sexuality. In some religions, sexual behavior is regarded as primarily spiritual. In others it is treated as primarily physical. Some hold that sexual behavior is only spiritual within certain kinds of relationships, when used for specific purposes, or when incorporated into religious ritual.

In some religions there are no distinctions between the physical and the spiritual, whereas some religions view human sexuality as a way of completing the gap that exists between the spiritual and the physical. Many religious conservatives, especially those of Abrahamic religions and Christianity in particular, tend to view sexuality in terms of behavior i.

They may also see homosexuality as a form of mental illness, something that ought to be criminalised, an immoral abomination, caused by ineffective parenting, and view same-sex marriage as a threat to society.

On the other hand, most religious liberals define sexuality-related labels in terms of sexual attraction and self-identification. They also tend to be more in favor of same-sex marriage. According to Judaism , sex between man and woman within marriage is sacred and should be enjoyed; celibacy is considered sinful.

The Roman Catholic Church teaches that sexuality is "noble and worthy" [78] but that it must be used in accordance with natural law. For this reason, all sexual activity must occur in the context of a marriage between a man and a woman, and must not be divorced from the possibility of conception. Most forms of sex without the possibility of conception are considered intrinsically disordered and sinful, such as the use of contraceptives, masturbation , and homosexual acts.

In Islam , sexual desire is considered to be a natural urge that should not be suppressed, although the concept of free sex is not accepted; these urges should be fulfilled responsibly.

Marriage is considered to be a good deed; it does not hinder spiritual wayfaring. The term used for marriage within the Quran is nikah , which literally means sexual intercourse. Although Islamic sexuality is restrained via Islamic sexual jurisprudence , it emphasizes sexual pleasure within marriage. It is acceptable for a man to have more than one wife, but he must take care of those wives physically, mentally, emotionally, financially, and spiritually.

However, homosexuality is strictly forbidden in Islam, and some Muslim lawyers have suggested that gay people should be put to death. For many Muslims, sex with reference to the Quran indicates that—bar anal intercourse and adultery—a Muslim marital home bonded by Nikah marital contract between husband and his wife s should enjoy and even indulge, within the privacy of their marital home, in limitless scope of heterosexual sexual acts within a monogamous or polygamous marriage.

Hinduism emphasizes that sex is only appropriate between husband and wife, in which satisfying sexual urges through sexual pleasure is an important duty of marriage. Any sex before marriage is considered to interfere with intellectual development, especially between birth and the age of 25, which is said to be brahmacharya and this should be avoided.

Kama sensual pleasures is one of the four purusharthas or aims of life dharma, artha, kama, and moksha. Sikhism views chastity as important, as Sikhs believe that the divine spark of Waheguru is present inside every individual's body, therefore it is important for one to keep clean and pure. Sexual activity is limited to married couples, and extramarital sex is forbidden.

Marriage is seen as a commitment to Waheguru and should be viewed as part of spiritual companionship, rather than just sexual intercourse, and monogamy is deeply emphasised in Sikhism.

Any other way of living is discouraged, including celibacy and homosexuality. However, in comparison to other religions, the issue of sexuality in Sikhism is not considered one of paramount importance. Sexuality has been an important, vital part of human existence throughout history. Within these groups, some implications of male dominance existed, but there were signs that women were active participants in sexuality, with bargaining power of their own.

Some underlying continuities or key regulatory standards contended with the tension between recognition of pleasure, interest, and the need to procreate for the sake of social order and economic survival. One example of these male-dominated portrayals is the Egyptian creation myth , in which the sun god Atum masturbates in the water, creating the Nile River.

In Sumerian myth, the Gods' semen filled the Tigris. Once agricultural societies emerged, the sexual framework shifted in ways that persisted for many millennia in much of Asia, Africa, Europe, and parts of the Americas. One common characteristic new to these societies was the collective supervision of sexual behavior due to urbanization, and the growth of population and population density.

Children would commonly witness parents having sex because many families shared the same sleeping quarters. Due to landownership, determination of children's paternity became important, and society and family life became patriarchal. These changes in sexual ideology were used to control female sexuality and to differentiate standards by gender.

With these ideologies, sexual possessiveness and increases in jealousy emerged. With the domestication of animals, new opportunities for bestiality arose. Males mostly performed these types of sexual acts and many societies acquired firm rules against it. These acts also explain the many depictions of half-human, half-animal mythical creatures, and the sports of gods and goddesses with animals.

Some of these distinctions are portrayed in sex manuals, which were also common among civilizations in China, Greece, Rome, Persia, and India; each has its own sexual history.

During the beginning of the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, many changes in sexual standards occurred. New, dramatic, artificial birth control devices such as the condom and diaphragm were introduced. Doctors started claiming a new role in sexual matters, urging that their advice was crucial to sexual morality and health. New pornographic industries grew and Japan adopted its first laws against homosexuality.

In western societies, the definition of homosexuality was constantly changing; western influence on other cultures became more prevalent. New contacts created serious issues around sexuality and sexual traditions.

There were also major shifts in sexual behavior. During this period, puberty began occurring at younger ages, so a new focus on adolescence as a time of sexual confusion and danger emerged. There was a new focus on the purpose of marriage; it was increasing regarded as being for love rather than only for economics and reproduction. Alfred Kinsey initiated the modern era of sex research.

He collected data from questionnaires given to his students at Indiana University , but then switched to personal interviews about sexual behaviors. Kinsey and his colleagues sampled 5, men and 5, women. He found that most people masturbated, that many engaged in oral sex , that women are capable of having multiple orgasms, and that many men had had some type of homosexual experience in their lifetimes.

Many [ who? Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction at Indiana University continues to be a major center for the study of human sexuality. Masters and Johnson started to directly observe and record the physical responses in humans that are engaged in sexual activity under laboratory settings.

They observed 10, episodes of sexual acts between men and women. This led to methods of treating clinical problems and abnormalities. Masters and Johnson opened the first sex therapy clinic in In , they described their therapeutic techniques in their book, Human Sexual Inadequacy. Reproductive and sexual rights encompass the concept of applying human rights to issues related to reproduction and sexuality.

In , Emma Goldman and Margaret Sanger, [97] leaders of the birth control movement, began to spread correct information regarding contraception in opposition to the laws, such as the Comstock Law, [98] that demonized it.

One of their main purposes was to assert that the birth control movement was about empowering women with personal reproductive and economic freedom for those who could not afford to parent a child or simply did not want one. Goldman and Sanger saw it necessary to educate people as contraceptives were quickly being stigmatized as a population control tactic due to being a policy limiting births, disregarding that this limitation did not target ecological, political, or large economic conditions.

One Package [] declared that prescribing contraception to save a person's life or well-being was no longer illegal under the Comstock Law. Although opinions varied on when birth control should be available to women, by , there were birth control clinics in the United States but advertising their services remained illegal. The stigma continued to lose credibility as First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt publicly showed her support for birth control through the four terms her husband served However, it was not until that the Federal Government began to fund family planning and subsidized birth control services for lower class women and families at the order of President Lyndon B.

In humans, sexual intercourse and sexual activity in general have been shown to have health benefits, such as an improved sense of smell, [ citation needed ] reduction in stress and blood pressure, [] [] increased immunity , [] and decreased risk of prostate cancer. Exclusive causation, however, is unclear, and the benefits may be indirectly related to sex and directly related to significant reductions in stress, greater contentment, and better sleep that sex promotes.

Sexual intercourse can also be a disease vector. People both consciously and subconsciously seek to attract others with whom they can form deep relationships. This may be for companionship, procreation, or an intimate relationship. This involves interactive processes whereby people find and attract potential partners and maintain a relationship. These processes, which involve attracting one or more partners and maintaining sexual interest, can include:.

Sexual attraction is attraction on the basis of sexual desire or the quality of arousing such interest. The attraction can be to the physical or other qualities or traits of a person, or to such qualities in the context in which they appear.

The attraction may be to a person's aesthetics or movements or to their voice or smell, besides other factors. The attraction may be enhanced by a person's adornments, clothing, perfume, hair length and style , and anything else which can attract the sexual interest of another person. It can also be influenced by individual genetic , psychological , or cultural factors, or to other, more amorphous qualities of the person. Sexual attraction is also a response to another person that depends on a combination of the person possessing the traits and also on the criteria of the person who is attracted.

Though attempts have been made to devise objective criteria of sexual attractiveness, and measure it as one of several bodily forms of capital asset see erotic capital , a person's sexual attractiveness is to a large extent a subjective measure dependent on another person's interest, perception, and sexual orientation. For example, a gay or lesbian person would typically find a person of the same sex to be more attractive than one of the other sex.

A bisexual person would find either sex to be attractive. In addition, there are asexual people, who usually do not experience sexual attraction for either sex, though they may have romantic attraction homoromantic, biromantic or heteroromantic. Interpersonal attraction includes factors such as physical or psychological similarity , familiarity or possessing a preponderance of common or familiar features , similarity , complementarity , reciprocal liking , and reinforcement. The ability of a person's physical and other qualities to create a sexual interest in others is the basis of their use in advertising , music video , pornography , film , and other visual media, as well as in modeling , sex work and other occupations.

Globally, laws regulate human sexuality in several ways, including criminalizing particular sexual behaviors, granting individuals the privacy or autonomy to make their own sexual decisions, protecting individuals with regard to equality and non-discrimination, recognizing and protecting other individual rights, as well as legislating matters regarding marriage and the family, and creating laws protecting individuals from violence, harassment, and persecution.

In the United States, there are two fundamentally different approaches, applied in different states, regarding the way the law is used to attempt to govern a person's sexuality. Issues regarding human sexuality and human sexual orientation have come to the forefront in Western law in the latter half of the twentieth century, as part of the gay liberation movement's encouragement of LGBT individuals to " come out of the closet " and engaging with the legal system, primarily through courts.

Therefore, many issues regarding human sexuality and the law are found in the opinions of the courts. While the issue of privacy has been useful to sexual rights claims, some scholars have criticized its usefulness, saying that this perspective is too narrow and restrictive. The law is often slow to intervene in certain forms of coercive behavior that can limit individuals' control over their own sexuality such as female genital mutilation , forced marriages or lack of access to reproductive health care.

Many of these injustices are often perpetuated wholly or in part by private individuals rather than state agents, and as a result, there is an ongoing debate about the extent of state responsibility to prevent harmful practices and to investigate such practices when they do occur.

State intervention with regards to sexuality also occurs, and is considered acceptable by some, in certain instances e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Abnormal sexuality. How people experience themselves sexually. This article is about human sexual anatomy, sexuality and perceptions. For information specifically about sexual activities, see Human sexual activity.

For sexual behavior among other animals, see Animal sexual behaviour. For other uses, see Sexuality disambiguation. Polygamy Polyandry Polygyny. Cicisbeo Concubinage Courtesan Mistress. Breakup Separation Annulment Divorce Widowhood.

Emotions and feelings. Main article: Sexual orientation. Main article: Human reproductive system. Main article: Human male reproductive system. Main article: Human female reproductive system. Main article: Female reproductive system. Main article: Sexual dysfunction. Main article: Child sexuality.

Main article: Sexuality in older age. Main article: Religion and sexuality. Main article: History of human sexuality. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.

February Further information: Reproductive health and Reproductive rights. Main article: Human sexual activity. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Sexual attraction. June See also: Sexual and reproductive health and rights. Human sexuality portal. Adolescent sexuality Age of consent Antisexualism Gay sexual practices Human female sexuality Human male sexuality Human mating strategies Strategic pluralism Lesbian sexual practices Neuroscience and sexual orientation Sex magic Sexology Sex-positive movement Sex-positive feminism Sexualization Sociosexual orientation.

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However few studies have assessed risky sexual behaviour among married and cohabiting women in this high HIV prevalence country. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the prevalence and identify the predictors of risky sexual behaviour among married and cohabiting women in Mahikeng Local Municipality where HIV is generalized.

The study used cross-sectional mixed methods data obtained from women responding to a survey and 33 women participating in in-depth interviews in The data was analyzed by the use of the Chi square statistic and a parsimonious binary logistic regression model, and the thematic content analysis method. All the above predictors were exacerbated by culturally sanctioned gender inequality and structural factors. The findings suggest that risky sexual behaviour is prevalent among married and cohabiting women in the study area which has serious implication for the marital transmission of STIs and HIV.

We suggest interventions that enhance gender equality in sexual decisions and initiatives that encourage men to change their sexual beliefs and values. Risky sexual behaviours which are defined as behaviours that increase the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections STIs and HIV continue to be wide spread in sub-Saharan Africa and it explains why HIV is now endemic in this region Chialepeh and Susuman In South Africa, where the HIV pandemic is large, risky sexual behaviour by young unmarried adults is common Van et al.

However, little is known of the same behaviours among married and cohabiting women. This study is therefore an attempt to assess the prevalence and identify the predictors of risky sexual behaviour among married and cohabiting adults in a predominantly rural area in South Africa. Most of the assessment studies were focused on unmarried youth because of the high level of sexual activity in this group. Similar studies in Botswana Langeni and Zimbabwe Gregson et al. Other studies on risky sexual behaviour in Rwanda and Zambia also revealed that over half of new HIV infections Dunkle et al.

Another set of studies by Da Walque in five African countries and Shannon et al. It is therefore evident that the sexual behaviour of married and cohabiting women could increase their susceptibility to STIs. The studies also suggest that marriage may not protect women against STIs as previously thought, which makes this study particularly relevant because it was conducted in a high HIV prevalence setting.

Risky sexual behaviour is influenced by many factors. These include culture that impedes equality between men and women on sexual decisions Browne et al.

A study in South Africa found that men have more power in sexual matters in marriage than women Hargreaves et al. As a result, efforts to avoid risky sex by women may be construed by men as infringement on their conjugal rights Adamczyk and Greif Risky sexual behaviour can also be influenced by structural factors. One of these is a lack of or low level of education, which deprives women of knowledge and resources that can enable them to adopt safe sex practices.

Higher education provides knowledge and helps women to adopt attitudes and behaviours that enable them to revoke cultural norms and values that promote inequality in marriage Kroska and Elman It also empowers women by increasing opportunities for employment and incomes that enable them to adopt behaviours that enhance gender equality in sexual matters Haberland However, one epidemiological study by Hargreaves and Glynn found that people with higher education are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours, which was attributed to higher incomes that can afford risky lifestyles Tenkorang et al.

Another structural factor that increases risky sexual behaviour is poverty, which makes women remain dependant on men and prevents them from adopting safer sex measures Dodoo and Frost It also prevents women from challenging the risky sexual behaviours of their partners because of their dependence Miller et al. On the other hand, economic independence of women increases the power they have in marital and sexual decisions Osuafor and Mturi , which can protect them from engaging in risky sexual behaviours and exposure to STIs.

Risky sexual behaviours can also be influenced by individual level factors. Key among these is the reason for engaging in sexual activities in marriage Wusu and Isiugo-Abanihe In South Africa as in other sub-Saharan African countries, motherhood is the most important reason for getting married. As a result, women who do not have children when married can go to any length to achieve motherhood Dyer et al. Motherhood also provides women with status and a sense of acceptance and stability in marriage.

A study in South Africa, found that many women who get pregnant before marriage do so to prove their motherhood to their prospective future husbands so as to gain acceptance and approval White et al.

Additionally, women engage in unprotected sex to show love and view such sex as an important means of increasing their connectedness with their partners Jones et al. Although much knowledge exists in South Africa on risky sexual behaviour among young unmarried adults, little is known about risky sexual behaviours among married and cohabiting women.

The paucity of knowledge on this behaviour among married and cohabiting women is critical in preventing marital transmission of STIs and HIV in South Africa, where HIV continues to be a daunting and large pandemic. This study therefore aimed at assessing the prevalence of and identifying the main predictors of risky sexual behaviour among married and cohabiting women in Mahikeng Local Municipality.

The findings of the study could assist in developing interventions that increase safer sexual behaviours and reduce the risk of marital transmission of STIs and HIV among married and cohabiting women. The study used a cross-sectional design and employed quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data. In the quantitative method we used a pretested structured questionnaire to collect data on demographic, socioeconomic and sexual variables.

The qualitative data was collected by the use of the in-depth interview method in which an interview guide comprising open ended questions and probes was used to collect data on perceptions and attitudes on risky sexual behaviour.

The survey was conducted in both rural and urban wards of Mahikeng Local Municipality in The list of the enumeration areas developed for the census by Statistics South Africa was used to select the enumeration areas EAs from which the sample for the study was drawn. The two stage sample design was used to select participants for the study. The first stage comprised the selection of EAs using probability proportional to the size of rural and urban households.

A total of women who completed the questionnaire were included in the analysis. The in-depth interview included 33 women who were purposively selected based on their willingness to share information on their sexual behaviour. The predictor variables included in the analysis were demographic, social and sexual characteristics of the women. Social characteristics included place of residence categorized as rural and urban; highest level of education categorized as no education, primary, secondary and tertiary education and occupation of respondent categorized as unemployed, trading, government sector, teacher, student and domestic worker.

Data on sexual characteristics included perceived risk of contracting STIs categorized as likely, unlikely and none; level of knowledge of safe sex methods categorized as good, moderate, low and none; and reasons for sex categorized as pleasure and childbearing.

Data were analysed using three stages. The first stage described the profile of the study subjects. The second step used the Chi square statistic to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and the demographic, social and sexual characteristics of women excluding missing cases. The third stage was the multivariate analysis which was used to identify variables that predicted risky sexual behaviour.

All variables in the study were entered in the model and a parsimonious binary logistic regression model was used to identify and report the variables that significantly predicted risky sexual behaviour. The in-depth data was first transcribed in Setswana which is the dominant language in the study area and then translated into English. The analysis was done by the use of the thematic content analysis method.

The transcribed information was organized under four broad themes namely, sexual behaviour; culture and sexual behaviour; structural factors and sexual behaviour; and individual level factors and sexual behaviour. Topical statements and phrases on the themes were used to illustrate the views and perceptions of the study subjects.

Knowledge that sexual behaviour can affect health. Belief that partner has rights to use force to obtain sex. More than 6 in 10 had moderate and over one-third had good knowledge of safe sex methods, while 8 in 10 said childbearing was the main reason for engaging in sex.

Half of the women knew that their sexual behaviour can affect their health and nearly 8 in 10 said their partners have no right to use force to obtain sex.

Another 7 in 10 of the women said their partners were willing to use condoms and 6 in 10 said they communicated on sexual matters with their partners. The only reason is fear of violence, judgment and rejection by my husband. In addition, going to the clinic alone for treatment assumes that you are irresponsible by having unprotected sex with many partners when you are married. It is difficult to convince your husband to go and test and receive treatment when you know you have an infection and he does not show any sign.

The problem is that men do not take no for an answer. We do have fears; it is just that when you say no, they think you are saying yes. Apparently men are the ones who bring STIs in a relationship, because most women do not cheat. He is the first and only man I have ever slept with. If I have STIs it comes from him.

I do not want to fight with him, if I lie to him that I am sick or tired today, what will be my reason tomorrow. I am not sure if he is cheating, but men who drink and do not respect their partners are not reliable. Percentage of women who reported risky sexual behaviour by socio-demographic characteristics. Note: In some variables the total number of cases does not add to because missing cases were omitted in the analysis. Additionally, risky sexual behaviour was more common among women who believed their partners have the right to use force to obtain sex; their partners were unwilling to use condoms; and among women who did not communicate about sex with their partners.

My husband does not show me any signs to make me not to trust him. So there could be no way for me to know that he has STIs. I see myself at risk as men are not trustworthy. My husband is working outside Mahikeng and could engage in risky sexual behaviour at his work place. Yes I am at risk as men are not trustworthy, you will never know what they do when they are out there.

We women sometimes become desperate when you want to have a child but it refuses to come. You will find that you will have sex under any conditions not minding STIs with the hope that you will get that child. When he wants it sex nobody will stop him even if it is red menstruating he does not care. I know it belongs to him, he has rights to have it anytime, unless I share him with somebody.

Parsimonious logistic regression model showing odds ratios predicting risky sexual behaviour of women. Belief that partner has right to use force to obtain sex. The research revealed that compared to married and cohabiting adults, young unmarried adults are highly susceptible to risky sexual behaviour Hoque However, the increasing prevalence of HIV in marriage Omanje et al. The main objective of this study was therefore to assess the prevalence and identify the predictors of risky sexual behaviour among married and cohabiting women in a setting where HIV is generalized.

Overall, the study found that 4 in 10 married and cohabiting women have ever had a risky sexual act. A number of factors were found to predict risky sexual behaviour by married and cohabiting women in this study.

Lack of autonomy on sexual matters and lack of appropriate knowledge and information regarding safe sex have been identified as some of the causes of risky sexual behaviour by women in nascent marriages Santhya and Jejeebhoy Additionally, many women in recent marriages are also young in age, often in arranged or imposed marriages and are unaware of sexual and marriage matters and therefore easily sexually abused.

Women also experience a decline in marital quality after the first year of marriage and lose interest in sex if they become incompatible with their partners leading to sexual violence and risky sexual behaviour that increases their risk of STIs. Women whose partners work in agriculture and mining sectors were significantly more likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviour.

Abnormal sex practices in marriage